When will the 3 of us meet up with again ?
Humoristic azulejo in a vacationer store in Obidos
Azulejo (Portuguese: [ɐzuˈleʒu], Spanish: [aθuˈlexo], from the Arabic phrase Zellige زليج) is a kind of Portuguese or Spanishpainted, tin-glazed, ceramic tilework. It has develop into a regular part of Portuguese lifestyle, having been developed with no interruption for five generations. There is also a tradition of their production in previous Portuguese and Spanish colonies inLatin America and in the Philippines.
In Portugal, azulejos are found on the inside and exterior of church buildings, palaces, common homes and even railway stationsor subway stations. They represent a big part of Portuguese architecture as they are utilized on walls, flooring and even ceilings. They had been not only employed as an decorative art kind, but also had a specific purposeful potential liketemperature command in households. Quite a few azulejos chronicle big historic and cultural features of Portuguese history.
The art was released to Portugal, by the Moors and the craft is even now in use in the Arab globe in two key traditions the “Egyptian Zalij” and the “Moroccan Zalij” the latter remaining the most famed. The phrase azulejo is derived from the Arabic phrase الزليج (az-zulayj):zellige, indicating “polished stone”. This origin clarifies the unmistakable Arab influences in a lot of tiles: interlocking curvilinear, geometric or floral motifs. The Spanish metropolis of Seville had develop into the big centre of the Hispano-Moresque tile field, utilizing the outdated approaches of cuerda seca (‘dry string’) and cuenca.
The earliest azulejos in the 15th century had been dry-string tiles (cuerda seca) andazulejos alicatados (panels of tile-mosaic) in Moorish tradition, imported from Seville by king Manuel I after a stop by to that town in 1503. They had been glazed in a one colour and adorned with geometric patterns. They had been utilized on walls and employed for paving flooring, this kind of as can be observed in many rooms, and specially the Arab Area of the Sintra Nationwide Palace (which include the famed cuenca tiles with the armillary sphere, symbol of king Manuel I). The Portuguese adopted the Moorish tradition of horror vacui (‘fear of empty spaces’) and lined the walls wholly with azulejos.
Azulejos had been employed in substantial quantities to protect walls from the late 15th to early 16th century. A wonderful selection of 16th-century Hispano-Moorish azulejos (azulejos Hispano-mouriscos) can be found in the Museu da Rainha D. Leonor in Beja, Portugal (the previous Convento da Conceição).
Following the Portuguese had captured Ceuta (North Africa) in 1415 they became acquainted with the azulejo system by themselves. But till the mid-16th century the Portuguese continued to rely on overseas imports—mostly from Spain, but also on a smaller scale fromAntwerp (Flanders) (this kind of as the two panels by Jan Bogaerts in the Paço Ducal, Vila Viçosa, Alentejo) and Italy (this kind of as theAnnunciation by Francisco Niculoso in Évora, and Orazio Fontana).
When potters from Spain, Flanders and Italy arrived to Portugal in the early 16th century and proven workshops there, they introduced with them the maiolica approaches (which manufactured it possible to paint immediately on the tiles). This system authorized the artists to characterize a significantly more substantial variety of figurative themes in their compositions.
A person of the early local masters of the 16th century was Marçal de Matos, to whom Susanna and the Elders (1565), in Quinta da Bacalhoa, Azeitão, is attributed, as perfectly as theAdoration of the Shepperds (in the Nationwide Museum of Azulejos in Lisbon). The Miracle of St. Roque (in the Church of S. Roque, Lisbon) is the 1st dated Portuguese azulejocomposition (1584). It is the perform of Francisco de Matos, possibly the nephew and pupil of Marçal de Matos. Both equally drew their inspiration from Renaissance and Manneristpaintings and engravings from Italy and Flanders.
This had an crucial repercussion on the ceramic field, foremost to polychrome tin-glazed tile panels in Renaissance style (azulejo renascentista), this kind of as in the Church of S. Roque, Lisbon, and later on Hispano-Flemish Mannerist types (azulejo maneirista), this kind of as in the Capela de Sto. Amaro, Lisbon. Most of the azulejos depict allegorical or mythological scenes, biblical scenes, scenes from the lives of saints or searching scenes. In the very same church of São Roque, we can also uncover diamond-pointazulejos (ponta de diamante) with diamonds shown in trompe l’oeil- effect and grotesques, in the style of a Seville workshop. These grotesques with their weird representations would be often employed till the conclude of the 18th century.
In the late 16th century, checkered azulejos (azulejos enxaquetado) had been employed as decoration for substantial surfaces, this kind of as in church buildings and monasteries. Diagonally put simple white tiles had been surrounded by blue square ones and slender border tiles.
Soon afterwards, these simple white tiles had been changed by polychrome tiles (enxaquetado rico) typically providing a advanced framework this kind of as in the Church of Santa Maria de Marvila in Santarém with just one of the most excellent tile-based mostly inside decorations in Portugal.
When the diagonal tiles had been changed by a repetitive sample of horizontal polychrome tiles, just one could obtain a new structure with different motifs, interlacing Mannerist drawings with representations of roses and camelias (often roses and garlands). An inset votive usually depicts a scene from the existence of Christ or a saint. These carpet compositions (azulejo de tapete), as they had been identified as, elaborately framed with friezes and borders, had been developed in terrific quantities all through the seventeenth century. The very best illustrations are to be found in the Igreja do Salvador, Évora, Igreja de S. Quintino, Obral de Monte Agraço, Igreja de S. Vicente, Cuba (Portugal) and the university chapel in Coimbra.
The use of azulejos for the decoration of antependia (front of an altar), imitating treasured altar cloths, is regular for Portugal. The panel could be in just one piece, or composed of two or 3 sections. They had been employed in the 16th, seventeenth and 18th generations. Some antependia of the seventeenth century imitate oriental fabrics (calico, chintz). The golden fringes of the altar fabric had been imitated by yellow motifs on the painted border tiles. Exceptional illustrations can be found in the Clinic de Sta. Marta, Lisbon, or in the church of Almoster and the Convent of Buçaco.
For the duration of the very same interval one more motif in friezes was released: floral vases flanked by birds, dolphins or putti, the so-identified as albarradas. They had been possibly motivated by Flemish paintings of flower vases, this kind of as by Jan Brueghel the Elder. These had been even now no cost-standing in the seventeenth century, but they would be employed in repetitive modules in the 18th century.
A different sort of azulejo composition, identified as aves e ramagens (‘birds and branches’), arrived into vogue amongst 1650 and 1680. They had been affected by the representations on printed textiles that had been imported from India: Hindu symbols, bouquets, animals and birds.
In the next fifty percent of the seventeenth century, the Spanish artist Gabriel del Barco y Minusca released into Portugal the blue-and-white tiles from Delft in the Netherlands. The workshops of Jan van Oort and Willem van der Kloet in Amsterdam designed substantial tile panels with historic scenes for their abundant Portuguese clients, this kind of as for the Palace of the Marqueses da Fronteira in Benfica (Lisbon). But when king Pedro II stopped all imports of azulejos amongst 1687 and 1698, the workshop of Gabriel del Barco took above the production. The previous big production from Holland was sent in 1715. Soon substantial, household-manufactured blue-and-white figurative tiles, designed by academically properly trained Portuguese artists, became the dominant fashion, superseding the previous style for repeated patterns and summary decoration.
he late seventeenth and early 18th generations became the ‘Golden Age of the Azulejo’, the so-identified as Cycle of the Masters (Ciclo dos Mestres). Mass production was commenced not just for the reason that of a increased interior demand, but also for the reason that of substantial orders arrived in from the Portuguese colony of Brazil. Significant just one-off orders had been changed by the considerably less costly use of repetitive tile patterns. Church buildings, monasteries, palaces and even homes had been lined within and exterior with azulejos, a lot of with exuberant Baroque factors.
The most prominent grasp-designers in these early a long time of the 18th century had been: António Pereira (artist), Manuel dos Santos, the workshop of António de Oliveira Bernardes and his son Policarpo de Oliveira Bernardes the Master PMP (only acknowledged by his monogram) and his collaborators Teotónio dos Santos and Valentim de Almeida Bartolomeu Antunes and his pupil Nicolau de Freitas. As their production coincided with the reign of king João V (1706–1750), the style of this interval is also identified as the Joanine style.
For the duration of this very same interval seem the 1st ‘invitation figures’ (figura de convite), invented by the Master PMP and developed in the 18th and nineteenth generations. These are slice-out panels of azulejoswith existence-dimension figures (footmen, halberdiers, noblemen or elegantly dressed women), usually put in entrances of palaces (see Palácio da Mitra), patios and stair landings. Their purpose was to welcome readers. They can only be found in Portugal.
In the 1740s the style of Portuguese modern society altered from the monumental narrative panels to smaller and more delicately executed panels in Rococo style. These panels depict gallant and pastoral themes as they happen in the is effective of the French painter Antoine Watteau. High-quality illustrations are the façade and the gardens of the Palace of the Dukes de Mesquitela in Carnide (Lisbon) and the Corredor das Mangas in the Queluz Nationwide Palace. The mass-developed tiles acquired a more stereotypic structure with predominant polychrome irregular shell motifs.
The reconstruction of Lisbon after the Fantastic Earthquake of 1755 gave increase to a more utilitarian job for decoration with azulejos. This bare and purposeful style would develop into acknowledged as the Pombaline style, named after the Marquis of Pombal, who was place in cost of rebuilding the region. Tiny devotional azulejo panels commenced to seem on buildings as defense in opposition to foreseeable future disasters.
In Mexico, a substantial producer of Talavera—a Mexican maiolica, there are many cases of the use of azulejos on buildings and mansions. A person particular mansion, the Casa de los Azulejos in Mexico City, was constructed in 1737 for the Count and Countess of El Valle de Orizaba. Ceramic earning traditions had been imported to Mexico in the early 16th century and have flourished.
As a response, more simple and more sensitive Neoclassical designs commenced to seem with more subdued colors. These themes had been released in Portugal by the engravings of Robert and James Adams. The Genuine Fábrica de Louça do Rato, with the grasp-designerSebastião Inácio de Almeida and the painter Francisco de Paula e Oliveira, became in this interval an crucial company of the characteristic so-identified as Rato-tiles. A different crucial tile painter in this interval was Francisco Jorge da Costa.
In the 1st fifty percent of the nineteenth century, there was a stagnation in the production of ornamental tiles, owing 1st to the incursion of the Napoleonic military and later on to social and financial changes. When all-around 1840 immigrant Brazilians commenced an industrialized production in Porto, the Portuguese took above the Brazilian fashion of decorating the façades of their homes with azulejos. While these factories provides superior-aid tiles in just one or two colors, the Lisbon factories commenced making use of one more technique: the transfer-print technique on blue-and-white or polychrome azulejos. In the previous many years of the nineteenth century, the Lisbon factories commenced to use one more sort of transfer-printing: making use of creamware blanks.
While these industrialized procedures developed uncomplicated, stylized designs, the art of hand-painting tiles was not useless, as utilized by Manuel Joaquim de Jesus and specially Luís Ferreira. Luis Ferreira was the director of the Lisbon manufacturing unit Viúva Lamego and lined the entire façade of this manufacturing unit with allegorical scenes. He developed panels, acknowledged as Ferreira das Tabuletas, with flower vases, trees, and allegorical figures, applying the trompe-l’oeil system. These hand-painted panels are wonderful illustrations of the eclectic Passionate lifestyle of the late nineteenth century.
Close to the nineteen thirties, Artwork Deco-azulejos manufactured their overall look with their principal artistAntónio Costa. The monumental decorations, consisting of 20,000 azulejos, in the vestibule of the São Bento railway station in Porto, designed by Jorge Colaço, demonstrate in its historic themes the narrative style of the intimate ‘picture-postcard’. This just one of the most noteworthy creations with azulejos of the 20th century. The façades of the church buildings of Santo Ildefonso and Congregados similarly attest to the creative mastery of Jorge Colaço. Other artists from this interval include things like Mário Branco and Silvestre Silvestri, who adorned in 1912 the lateral façade of the Carmo Church, and Eduardo Leite for his perform on the Almas Chapel (imitating the style of the 18th century), equally in Porto.
20th-century artists include things like Jorge Barradas, Carlos Botelho, Jorge Martins, Sá Nogueira,Menez and Paula Rego. Maria Keil designed the substantial summary panels in the original nineteen stations of the Lisbon Underground amongst 1957 and 1972). By way of these is effective she became a driving drive in the revival and the updating of the art of the azulejo, which had long gone in some drop. Her decorations of the station Intendente is regarded a masterpiece of up to date tile art[quotation needed]. In 1988 the subsequent up to date artists had been commissioned to enhance the more recent subway stations Júlio Pomar (the Alto dos Moinhos station), Maria Helena Vieira da Silva (the Cidade Universitária station), Sá Nogueira (Laranjeiras station) and Manuel Cargaleiro (the Colégio Militar station).
The Museu Nacional do Azulejo in Lisbon homes the biggest selection of Portuguese tiles in the globe.
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Tagged: , Portugal , Obidos , Azulejo , Jan Herremans , Donkeys
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